The history of transport is largely one of technological innovation. Advances in technology have allowed people to travel farther, explore more territory, and expand their influence over larger areas.

Even in ancient times, new tools such as foot coverings and snow shoes, lengthened the distances that
could be traveled. As new inventions and discoveries were applied to transport problems, travel time
decreased while the ability to move larger loads increased. International trade was the driving motivator behind advancements in global transportation in the premodern world.

There was a single global world economy with a worldwide division of labour and multilateral trade from 1,500 onward. To increase efficiency, transport services were integrated as evidenced by the establishment of the East African Railways and Harbours Corporation, a defunct company that operated railways and harbours in East Africa from 1948 to 1977.

It was formed in 1948 for the new East African High Commission by merging the Kenya and Uganda
railways and harbours with the Tanganyika Railway. As well as running railways and harbours in the three territories, it ran inland shipping services on Lake Victoria, Lake Kyoga, Lake Albert, the Victoria Nile and the Albert Nile. But now, the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR), the flagship project of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), remains significant in terms of saving valued natural resources and protecting the environment, especially from the challenge of global warming.

Its operations have continued to play positive effects on delivery of both passengers and cargo. From passenger trains inauguration by President Uhuru on June 1, 2017 that initially had one train per each direction, the service has improved to current state of three trains both directions. During the period of June 2017 up to end February 2021, 4,356 passenger trains have moved both directions delivering 5,200,000 passengers, a service that has proved popular with on time schedule train arrivals.

On the Freight cargo service that commenced on January 1, 2018, SGR has maintained a steady off-take of cargo from the port that has seen 7,280 trains moved delivering 726,485 TEUs. The SGR has also had a multiplier effect on the economy by spurring the growth of the tourism sector at the coast.

At least 65 per cent of all the tourists arriving in Nairobi from abroad and the national parks ride the Madaraka Express to Mombasa. The cost of production and manufacturing has been lowered, and agriculture and service industry has experienced exponential growth. Import tonnage moved 12,414,615 tons. Export and empty containers delivered via SGR stand at 439,565 TEUs, contributing to 1,509,778 tons.

This has positively enhanced cargo throughput from the port by rail, reducing duel time and quick turnaround on vessels at the port. The improved service has seen a daily wagon supply for containerised cargo oscillating between 400 to 450 per 24 hours. With the recently introduced new service on double deck wagons on containers, two such trains are currently active, delivering 152 TEUs per move.

To further enhance service improvement, conventional bulk loading using both high open wagons and special containers has been ongoing, enabling daily delivery of 7000 metric tons per day of wheat to Nairobi for both local and transit clients. With the recent operational coordination merger of KR, KPA and KRA with joint approach on port operations, both organisations are currently working together to provide seamless cargo evacuations needs.

As the government continues to mitigate the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, the SGR operator ensures strict adherence to the laid down protocols. Given the resilience of and key milestones achieved by the SGR within the last three years, it remains the preferred mode of transport.

The milestones include the launch of the Nairobi-Mombasa passenger train in June 2017, the launch of the inter-county passenger service in November 2017, the inauguration of Phase 2A passenger service by President Uhuru in October 2019 and the celebration of safely operating the Madaraka Express service for 1000 days.

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